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Tail vein

Tail vein or caudal vein is the largest vein in vertebrate animals tail. It leads directly into the posterior cardinal vein in the posterior trunk in fishes. Mammal caudal vein leads to inferior vena cava. Caudal vein is one of the many places fr ...

Testure

"Testure" is a song by Canadian electro-industrial band Skinny Puppy, taken from its 1988 album VIVIsectVI and released as a single in 1989. "Testure" was the groups first and last song to chart on Billboardss Dance Club Songs, and it was accompa ...

The Three Rs

The Three Rs in relation to science are guiding principles for more ethical use of animals in testing. They were first described by W. M. S. Russell and R. L. Burch in 1959. The 3Rs are: Replacement: methods which avoid or replace the use of anim ...

ZebraBox

The ZebraBox is the first ever automated analysis chamber used for zebrafish monitoring in a non-intrusive manner. This system provides high throughput behavioral analysis data with controlled experimental conditions. It is widely used in the dru ...

Cannabis and time perception

The effect of cannabis on time perception has been studied with inconclusive results. Studies show consistently throughout the literature that most cannabis users self-report the experience of a slowed perception of time. In the laboratory, resea ...

Medical cannabis research

Medical cannabis research includes any medical research on using cannabis as a treatment for any medical condition. For reasons including increased popular support of cannabis use, a trend of cannabis legalization, and the perception of medical u ...

Washington Initiative 502

Washington Initiative 502 "on marijuana reform" was an initiative to the Washington State Legislature, which appeared on the November 2012 general ballot, passing by a margin of approximately 56 to 44 percent. Originally submitted to the Washingt ...

ADME

ADME is an abbreviation in pharmacokinetics and pharmacology for "absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion", and describes the disposition of a pharmaceutical compound within an organism. The four criteria all influence the drug levels ...

Binding coefficient

In medicinal chemistry and pharmacology, a binding coefficient is a quantity representing the extent to which a chemical compound will bind to a macromolecule. The preferential binding coefficient can be derived from the Kirkwood-Buff solution th ...

BindingDB

BindingDB is a public, web-accessible database of measured binding affinities, focusing chiefly on the interactions of proteins considered to be candidate drug-targets with ligands that are small, drug-like molecules. As of March, 2011, BindingDB ...

Bioisostere

In medicinal chemistry, bioisosteres are chemical substituents or groups with similar physical or chemical properties which produce broadly similar biological properties to another chemical compound. In drug design, the purpose of exchanging one ...

Clinical pharmaceutical chemistry

Clinical pharmaceutical chemistry is a specialty branch of chemical sciences, which consists of medicinal chemistry with additional training in clinical aspects of translational sciences and medicine. Typically this involves similar principal tra ...

Conformation–activity relationship

The conformation–activity relationship is the relationship between the biological activity and the chemical structure or conformational changes of a biomolecule. This terminology emphasizes the importance of dynamic conformational changes for the ...

Drug carrier

A drug carrier is any substrate used in the process of drug delivery which serves to improve the selectivity, effectiveness, and/or safety of drug administration. Drug carriers are primarily used to control the release of a drug into systemic cir ...

Enzyme inhibitor

An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity. By binding to enzymes active sites, inhibitors reduce the compatibility of substrate and enzyme and this leads to the inhibition of Enzyme-Substrate complexes f ...

Extrafarma

Extrafarma is the drugstore chain owned by Ultrapar. The company is among the top 10 largest pharmacy chains in Brazil, with stores located throughout the north, northeast and southern regions of the country. The company has more than 400 stores ...

First pass effect

The first pass effect is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug, specifically when administered orally, is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation. It is the fraction of drug lost during the process ...

Grimm's hydride displacement law

Grimms Hydride Displacement Law is an early hypothesis to describe bioisosterism, the ability of certain chemical groups to function as or mimic other chemical groups. Atoms anywhere up to four places in the periodic system before an inert gas ch ...

LigandScout

LigandScout is computer software that allows creating three-dimensional pharmacophore models from structural data of macromolecule–ligand complexes, or from training and test sets of organic molecules. It incorporates a complete definition of 3D ...

Mode of action

A mode of action describes a functional or anatomical change, resulting from the exposure of a living organism to a substance. Some sources consider the mode of action to be only at the cellular level. In comparison, a mechanism of action describ ...

Molecular binding

Molecular binding is an attractive interaction between two molecules that results in a stable association in which the molecules are in close proximity to each other.It is formed when atoms or molecules bind together by sharing of electrons. It o ...

Parallel artificial membrane permeability assay

PAMPA redirects here; for other acceptions see: Pampa. In medicinal chemistry, parallel artificial membrane permeability assay is a method which determines the permeability of substances from a donor compartment, through a lipid-infused artificia ...

Pan-assay interference compounds

Pan-assay interference compounds are chemical compounds that often give false positive results in high-throughput screens. PAINS tend to react nonspecifically with numerous biological targets rather than specifically affecting one desired target. ...

Pharmaceutical formulation

Pharmaceutical formulation, in pharmaceutics, is the process in which different chemical substances, including the active drug, are combined to produce a final medicinal product. The word formulation is often used in a way that includes dosage form.

Structure–activity relationship

The structure–activity relationship is the relationship between the chemical structure of a molecule and its biological activity. This idea was first presented by Crum-Brown and Fraser in 1865. The analysis of SAR enables the determination of the ...

Targeted covalent inhibitors

Targeted covalent inhibitors or Targeted covalent drugs are rationally designed inhibitors that bind and then bond to their target proteins. These inhibitors possess a bond-forming functional group of low chemical reactivity that, following bindi ...

Nanomedicine

Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications of nanomaterials and biological devices, to nanoelectronic biosensors, and even possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology ...

Antibiotic properties of nanoparticles

Nanoparticles have been studied extensively for their antimicrobial properties in order to fight super bug bacteria. Several characteristics in particular make nanoparticles strong candidates as a traditional antibiotic drug alternative. Firstly, ...

BIND-014

BIND-014 is a targeted polymeric nanoparticle, and is an investigational therapeutic drug in phase 2 clinical trials for various cancers, e.g. metastatic prostate cancer BIND-014 is an Accurin nanomedicine produced by Bind Therapeutics Inc. BIND- ...

Carbon nanotubes in medicine

Carbon nanotubes are very prevalent in todays world of medical research and are being highly researched in the fields of efficient drug delivery and biosensing methods for disease treatment and health monitoring. Carbon nanotube technology has sh ...

Nanoneedle

Nanoneedles may be conical or tubular needles in the nanometre size range, made from silicon or boron-nitride with a central bore of sufficient size to allow the passage of large molecules, or solid needles useful in Raman spectroscopy, light emi ...

Nanoparticle–biomolecule conjugate

A nanoparticle–biomolecule conjugate is a nanoparticle with biomolecules attached to its surface. Nanoparticles are minuscule particles, typically measured in nanometers, that are used in nanobiotechnology to explore the functions of biomolecules ...

2006 Missouri Constitutional Amendment 2

Missouri Constitutional Amendment 2 was a state constitutional amendment initiative that concerned stem cell research and human cloning. It allows any stem cell research and therapy in Missouri that is legal under federal law, including somatic c ...

Australian Stem Cell Centre

The Australian Stem Cell Centre is an Australian medical research and development centre which focuses on regenerative medicine through the use of stem cells. Founded in 2003, the Centre is the National Biotechnology Centre of Excellence and has ...

Center for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine

The Center for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine is a medical research institution specializing in stem cell and other cell therapy research and treatments, located in Cleveland, Ohio. They specialize in basic and clinical research programs, bi ...

China Zebrafish Resource Center

The China Zebrafish Resource Center locates in 7 Donghu South Road, Wuhan, China. It was established in the Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, in October 2012.

Embryonic Stem Cell Research Oversight Committees

The National Academies called for the establishment of Embryonic Stem Cell Research Oversight Committees in its 2005 Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research to manage the ethical and legal concerns in human embryonic stem cell research. ...

German Society for Stem Cell Research

The German Society for Stem Cell Research, established in 2003 by Juergen Hescheler, brings scientists from around Germany together and has an emphasis on basic research in stem cell biology. The main purpose of the society is to promote stem cel ...

Translational glycobiology

Translational glycobiology or applied glycobiology is the branch of glycobiology and glycochemistry that focuses on developing new pharmaceuticals through glycomics and glycoengineering. Research in the field aims to use therapeutic glycoconjugat ...

Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center

The Hematology-Oncology Research Center and Stem Cell Transplantation is affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences and based in Shariati Hospital, Tehran, Iran. As a main national hematology-oncology center, it is among the most promine ...

Hes3 signaling axis

Cells in tissues need to be able to sense and interpret changes in their environment. For example, cells must be able to detect when they are in physical contact with other cells in order to regulate their growth and avoid the generation of tumor ...

Human Engineered Cardiac Tissues (hECTs)

Human engineered cardiac tissues are derived by experimental manipulation of pluripotent stem cells, such as human embryonic stem cells and, more recently, human induced pluripotent stem cells to differentiate into human cardiomyocytes. Interest ...

Kenny Dies

Kenny Dies is the thirteenth and penultimate episode of the fifth season of the animated television series South Park, and the 78th episode of the series overall. "Kenny Dies" originally aired in the United States on December 5, 2001 on Comedy Ce ...

New York Stem Cell Foundation

The New York Stem Cell Foundation is an American 501 nonprofit organization, founded in the Spring of 2005, with the mission" accelerating cures for the major diseases of our time through stem cell research.” NYSCF established the first privately ...

NTERA-2

NTERA-2 cells exhibit biochemical and developmental properties similar to the cells of the early embryo, and can be used to study the early stages of human neurogenesis. The cells exhibit a high nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio, prominent nucleoli, and t ...

Regenestem

Regenestem is an international medical practice company focused on providing comprehensive solutions for adult stem cell treatments and research. Regenestem was founded in 2012 by Ricardo DeCubas, also co-founder of Ritmoteca.com. It is a former ...

Shanghai Stem Cell Institute

The institute, located within the Shanghai Jiao Tong University under the School of Medicine faculty, is entirely funded by the government of the Peoples Republic of China. In 2007, the first Shanghai International Symposium on Stem Cell Research ...

Society for Hematology and Stem Cells

The Society for Hematology and Stem Cells is a learned society which deals with hematology, the study of the blood system and its diseases, including those caused by exposure to nuclear radiation. It was founded in 1950, and held its first offici ...

Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Cluster

Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Cluster is a business cluster located in Vilnius, Lithuania. Founded in 2011 the cluster unifies 11 SMEs and state enterprises, including research centers, hospitals, medical centers, and other related institut ...

Stem Cell Network

Established in 2001, The Stem Cell Network has become Canada’s foremost research organization dedicated to enabling the translation of stem cell research into clinical applications, commercial products and public policy. Supported by the Governme ...