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Libellula

Libellula is a genus of dragonflies, commonly called skimmers, in the family Libellulidae, distributed throughout the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere. Most species are found in the United States, where they are the best-known large drag ...

Migration of marine species in the Northern Atlantic Ocean

The worlds oceans are warming due to climate change. Climate change is caused by three major factors which are the greenhouse effect, variation in the suns energy that reaches Earth, and changes in reflectivity within Earths atmosphere and its su ...

Monarch butterfly

The monarch butterfly or simply monarch is a milkweed butterfly in the family Nymphalidae. Other common names depending on region include milkweed, common tiger, wanderer, and black veined brown. It may be the most familiar North American butterf ...

Monarch butterfly migration

Monarch butterfly migration is the phenomenon, mainly across North America, where the subspecies Danaus plexippus migrates each summer and autumn to and from overwintering sites on the West Coast of California or mountainous sites in Central Mexi ...

Pest-exclusion fence

A pest-exclusion fence is a barrier that is built to exclude certain types of animal pests from an enclosure. This may be to protect plants in horticulture, preserve grassland for grazing animals, separate species carrying diseases from livestock ...

Rabbit-proof fence

The State Barrier Fence of Western Australia, formerly known as the Rabbit Proof Fence, the State Vermin Fence, and the Emu Fence, is a pest-exclusion fence constructed between 1901 and 1907 to keep rabbits and other agricultural pests, from the ...

Sea turtle migration

Sea turtle migration refers to the long-distance movements of sea turtles notably as adults but may also refer to the offshore migration of hatchings. Sea turtle hatchings emerge from underground nests and crawl across the beach towards the sea. ...

Silver Y

The silver Y is a medium-sized moth with a wingspan of 30 to 45 mm. The wings are intricately patterned with various shades of brown and grey providing excellent camouflage. In the centre of each forewing there is a silver-coloured mark shaped li ...

Swarming (honey bee)

Swarming is a honey bee colonys natural means of reproduction. In the process of swarming, a single colony splits into two or more distinct colonies. Swarming is mainly a spring phenomenon, usually within a two- or three-week period depending on ...

Sympetrum

Sympetrum is a genus of small to medium-sized skimmer dragonflies, known as darters in the UK and as meadowhawks in North America. The more than 50 species predominantly live in the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere; no Sympetrum species ...

Vanessa atalanta

Vanessa atalanta, the red admiral or previously, the red admirable, is a well-characterized, medium-sized butterfly with black wings, orange bands, and white spots. It has a wingspan of about 2 inches. It was first described by Carl Linnaeus in h ...

Vanessa cardui

Male and female. Upperside. Ground-colour reddish-ochreous, basal areas olivescent-ochreous-brown; cilia black, alternated with white, Forewing with an outwardly-oblique black irregular-shaped broken band crossing from middle of the cell to the d ...

Tropism

A tropism is a biological phenomenon, indicating growth or turning movement of a biological organism, usually a plant, in response to an environmental stimulus. In tropisms, this response is dependent on the direction of the stimulus. Viruses and ...

Gravitropism

Gravitropism is a coordinated process of differential growth by a plant or fungus in response to gravity pulling on it. Gravity can be either "artificial gravity" or natural gravity. It is a general feature of all higher and many lower plants as ...

Hydrotropism

Hydrotropism is a plants growth response in which the direction of growth is determined by a stimulus or gradient in water concentration. A common example is a plant root growing in humid air bending toward a higher relative humidity level. This ...

Thermotropism

Thermotropism or thermotropic movement is the movement of a plant or part of a plant in response to a change in temperature. A common example is the curling of Rhododendron leaves in response to cold temperatures. Mimosa pudica also show thermotr ...

Tissue tropism

Tissue tropism is the cells and tissues of a host that support growth of a particular virus or bacterium. Some bacteria and viruses have a broad tissue tropism and can infect many types of cells and tissues. Other viruses may infect primarily a s ...

5-HT4 receptor

This gene is a member of the family of human serotonin receptors, which are G protein-coupled receptors that stimulate cAMP production in response to serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine. The gene product is a glycosylated transmembrane protein that fun ...

Acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase

N-Acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase, also known as ASMT, is an enzyme which catalyzes the final reaction in melatonin biosynthesis: converting Normelatonin to melatonin. This reaction is embedded in the more general tryptophan metabolism pathwa ...

ANK3

The protein encoded by this gene, ankyrin-3 is an immunologically distinct gene product from ankyrins ANK1 and ANK2, and was originally found at the axonal initial segment and nodes of Ranvier of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous syst ...

Ankyrin

Ankyrins are a family of proteins that mediate the attachment of integral membrane proteins to the spectrin-actin based membrane cytoskeleton. Ankyrins have binding sites for the beta subunit of spectrin and at least 12 families of integral membr ...

Aquaporin

Aquaporins, also called water channels, are integral membrane proteins from a larger family of major intrinsic proteins that form pores in the membrane of biological cells, mainly facilitating transport of water between cells. The cell membranes ...

Aquaporin 2

It is the only aquaporin regulated by vasopressin. The basic job of aquaporin 2 is to reabsorb water from the urine while its being removed from the blood by the kidney. Aquaporin 2 is in kidney epithelial cells and usually lies dormant in intrac ...

Vasopressin receptor 1A

Vasopressin receptor 1A, or arginine vasopressin receptor 1A is one of the three major receptor types for vasopressin, and is present throughout the brain, as well as in the periphery in the liver, kidney, and vasculature. V1AR is also known as: ...

Serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1

Serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 also known as alternative splicing factor 1, pre-mRNA-splicing factor SF2 or ASF1/SF2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SRSF1 gene. ASF/SF2 is an essential sequence specific splicing factor invol ...

ATF5

First described by Nishizawa and Nagata, ATF5 has been classified as a member of the activating transcription factor ATF/cAMP response-element binding protein CREB family. ATF5 transcripts and protein are expressed in a wide variety of tissues, i ...

Cav1.2

Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNA1C gene. Ca v 1.2 is a subunit of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel.

Citron kinase

Citron is a 183 kDa protein that contains a C6H2 zinc finger, a PH domain, and a long coiled-coil forming region including 4 leucine zippers and a rho / rac binding site. It was discovered as a rho/rac effector in 1995, interacting only with the ...

CLDN10

Claudin-10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN10 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. This gene encodes a member of the claudin family. Claudins are integral membrane proteins and components of tight junction strands. Tight j ...

Dock9

Dock9, also known as Zizimin1, is a large protein involved in intracellular signalling networks. It is a member of the DOCK-D subfamily of the DOCK family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors that function as activators of small G proteins. Doc ...

FABP7

The protein encoded by this gene is a brain fatty acid binding protein. Fatty acid binding proteins FABPs are a family of small, highly conserved, cytoplasmic proteins that bind long-chain fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands. FABPs are thou ...

FAT1

This gene is an ortholog of the Drosophila fat gene, which encodes a tumor suppressor essential for controlling cell proliferation during Drosophila development. The gene product is a member of the cadherin superfamily, a group of integral membra ...

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 3

G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADRBK2 gene. GRK3 was initially called Beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2, and is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein ...

GABRA5

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind ...

Glutamate decarboxylase

Glutamate decarboxylase or glutamic acid decarboxylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of glutamate to GABA and CO 2. GAD uses PLP as a cofactor. The reaction proceeds as follows: HOOC-CH 2 -CH 2 -CHNH 2-COOH → CO 2 + HOOC-CH 2 -C ...

GRIK4

GRIK4 is a kainate receptor subtype belonging to the family of ligand-gated ion channels which is encoded by the GRIK4 gene.

GSK-3

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that mediates the addition of phosphate molecules onto serine and threonine amino acid residues. First discovered in 1980 as a regulatory kinase for its namesake, Glycogen synthase, ...

Inositol monophosphatase 1

L-690.330 is a competitive inhibitor of IMPase activity with very good activity in vitro however with limited bioavailability in vivo. Due to its increased specificity compared to Lithium, L-690.330 has been used extensively in characterizing the ...

Inositol-phosphate phosphatase

Inositol phosphate-phosphatase, commonly referred to as IMPase, are enzymes of the phosphodiesterase family of enzymes. They are involved in the phosphophatidylinositol signaling pathway, which affects a wide array of cell functions, including bu ...

NAGly receptor

N -Arachidonyl glycine receptor, also known as G protein-coupled receptor 18, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPR18 gene. Along with the other previously "orphan" receptors GPR55 and GPR119, GPR18 has been found to be a receptor for ...

NDUFV2

NADH dehydrogenase flavoprotein 2, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NDUFV2 gene. The encoded protein, NDUFV2, is a subunit of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which is located on the inner mitochondrial ...

NOS1

Nitric oxide synthases EC 1.14.13.39 NOSs are a family of synthases that catalyze the production of nitric oxide NO from L-arginine. NO is a chemical messenger with diverse functions throughout the body. In the brain and peripheral nervous system ...

NOS1AP

Nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein also known as carboxyl-terminal PDZ ligand of neuronal nitric oxide synthase protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NOS1AP gene. This gene encodes a cytosolic protein that binds to the signal ...

NPAS3

NPAS3 or Neuronal PAS domain protein 3 is a brain-enriched transcription factor belonging to the bHLH-PAS superfamily of transcription factors, the members of which carry out diverse functions, including circadian oscillations, neurogenesis, toxi ...

Oligodendrocyte

Oligodendrocytes, or oligodendroglia, are a type of neuroglia whose main functions are to provide support and insulation to axons in the central nervous system of some vertebrates, equivalent to the function performed by Schwann cells in the peri ...

PDLIM5

PDZ and LIM domain protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PDLIM5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a LIM domain protein. LIM domains are cysteine-rich double zinc fingers composed of 50 to 60 amino acids that are involved ...

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta or delta, also known as NR1C2 is a nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the PPARD gene. This gene encodes a member of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPAR family. It was firs ...

Polypyrrole

Polypyrrole is a type of organic polymer formed by the polymerization of pyrrole. It is a solid with the formula H n H. Upon oxidation, polypyrrole converts to a conducting polymer.

Reelin

Reelin is a large secreted extracellular matrix glycoprotein that helps regulate processes of neuronal migration and positioning in the developing brain by controlling cell–cell interactions. Besides this important role in early development, reel ...

Rs4680

In genetics, rs4680 is a genetic variant. It is a single nucleotide polymorphism in the COMT gene that codes catechol- O -Methyltransferase. The single nucleotide substitution between G--> A results in an amino acid change from valine to methi ...