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Pensacola streetcar strike of 1908

A strike of streetcar operators took place in Pensacola, Florida from April 5 to May 13, 1908. It was staged by employees of the Pensacola Electric Company over a company rule requiring workers whom the company had suspended for whatever reason t ...

PESTS

PESTS was an anonymous American activist group formed in 1986 to critique racism, tokenism, and exclusion in the art world. PESTS produced newsletters, posters, and other print material highlighting examples of discrimination in gallery represent ...

Project Hot Seat

Project Hot Seat is a campaign started by Greenpeace. Its goal is to apply intense pressure on members of The United States Congress in order to implement policies that will curb and cut U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, and what Phil Radford, Green ...

Saving Iceland

Saving Iceland is an organization that describe themselves as "a network of people of different nationalities, who do not intend to stand by passively and watch the Icelandic government in league with foreign corporations slowly kill the natural ...

Scottish Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament

The Scottish Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament is the Scottish representative body of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. The Scottish CND campaigns for the abolition of British nuclear weapons to contribute to the global elimination of all nucl ...

Socialist Women's Network

The Socialist Womens Network is the womens wing of the Scottish Socialist Party and campaigns on issues particularly affecting women. Although primarily made up of party members, the SWN is open to all women who are interested in womens issues fr ...

Suffrage Atelier

Suffrage Atelier was an artists collective campaigning for womens suffrage in England. It was founded in February 1909 by Laurence Housman, Clemence Housman and Alfred Pearse. Clemence was a writer, illustrator, and wood engraver, and her brother ...

Troops Out Now Coalition

The Troops Out Now Coalition is a United States anti-war organization, which describes itself as "a national grassroots coalition of antiwar activists, trade unionists, solidarity activists and community organizers." Closely associated with the r ...

Aerodrome

An aerodrome or airdrome is a location from which aircraft flight operations take place, regardless of whether they involve air cargo, passengers, or neither. Aerodromes include small general aviation airfields, large commercial airports, and mil ...

Aircraft

An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to fly by gaining support from the air. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines. Common ...

Aircraft engine performance

Aircraft engines are a mechanical component of the propulsion system on an airplane, helicopter, rocket or UAV which produces rotary energy to be transferred to a propeller or kinetic energy as a high pressure air exhaust stream. The most common ...

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft

The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft was a weekly partwork magazine by Aerospace Publishing that was published in the United Kingdom in the early 1980s. The magazine was intended to eventually make up a multi-volume encyclopedia dedicated to ...

Large aircraft

Large aircraft allow the transportation of large and/or heavy payloads over long distances. Making an aircraft design larger can also improve the overall fuel efficiency and man-hours for transporting a given load, while a greater space is availa ...

Mother ship

A mother ship, mothership or mother-ship is a large vehicle that leads, serves, or carries other smaller vehicles. A mother ship may be a maritime ship, aircraft, or spacecraft. Examples include bombers converted to carry experimental aircraft to ...

Airline codes

This is a list of airline codes. The table lists IATAs two-character airline designators, ICAOs three-character airline designators and the airline call signs. Historical assignments are also included.

Air traffic flow management

Air traffic flow management is the regulation of air traffic in order to avoid exceeding airport or air traffic control capacity in handling traffic, and to ensure that available capacity is used efficiently.

Air traffic service

In aviation, an air traffic service is a service which regulates and assists aircraft in real-time to ensure their safe operations. In particular, ATS is to: prevent collisions between aircraft; provide advice of the safe and efficient conduct of ...

ATM-grade

In Air Traffic Management, "ATM-grade" or "ATM grade" defines a system or solution that fulfills certain requirements so that it can be used within the Air Traffic Management environment. Those requirements cover for example aspects of well teste ...

BULATSA

BULATSA is the Bulgarian Air Traffic Services Authority, a branch of the Bulgarian Civil Aviation Administration responsible for air traffic management within Bulgarias airspace.

Aircraft approach category

Specifically the V Ref,of a given aircraft, at the maximum certificated landing weight if V Ref is not specified, the approach speed is given as the V S 0 multiplied by 1.3. V Ref, V S 0, and the maximum certificated landing weight are those valu ...

Airmanship

Airmanship is skill and knowledge applied to aerial navigation, similar to seamanship in maritime navigation. Airmanship covers a broad range of desirable behaviors and abilities in an aviator. It is not simply a measure of skill or technique, bu ...

Backtaxi

Backtaxi is an airport ground procedure which involves the use of any portion of a runway as a taxiway for an aircraft to taxi in the opposite direction from which it will take off or has landed. The procedure is commonly used at smaller airports ...

Chase plane

A chase plane is an aircraft that "chases" a "subject" aircraft, spacecraft or rocket, for the purposes of making real-time observations and taking air-to-air photographs and video of the "subject aircraft", during flight. Safety can be one funct ...

Cross-country flying

Cross-country flying is a type of distance flying which is performed in a powered aircraft on legs over a given distance and in operations between two points using navigational techniques; and an unpowered aircraft by using upcurrents to gain alt ...

Deadheading (employee)

Deadheading is the practice of carrying, free of charge, a transport companys own staff on a normal passenger trip so that they can be in the right place to begin their duties.

Ferry flying

Ferry flying is the flying of aircraft for the purpose of returning to base, delivery to customer when new, moving from one base of operations to another or moving to or from a maintenance facility for maintenance, repair, and operations. An airc ...

Flight plan

Flight plans are documents filed by a pilot or flight dispatcher with the local Air Navigation Service Provider prior to departure which indicate the planes planned route or flight path. Flight plan format is specified in ICAO Doc 4444. They gene ...

Flight planning

Flight planning is the process of producing a flight plan to describe a proposed aircraft flight. It involves two safety-critical aspects: fuel calculation, to ensure that the aircraft can safely reach the destination, and compliance with air tra ...

Formation flying

Studies of birds have shown that the V formation can greatly enhance the overall aerodynamic efficiency by reducing the drag and thereby increasing the flight range.

Fuel dumping

Fuel dumping is a procedure used by aircraft in certain emergency situations before a return to the airport shortly after takeoff, or before landing short of the intended destination to reduce the aircrafts weight.

Jettison (aviation)

In aviation, to jettison is to discard fuel, external stores or other expendable items. The item is usually jettisoned by operating a switch or handle; external stores may be separated from the aircraft by use of explosive bolts or a mechanism. F ...

Air launch

Air launching is the practice of releasing a rocket, missile, parasite aircraft or other aircraft payload from a mother ship or launch aircraft. The payload craft or missile is often tucked under the wing of the larger mother ship and then "dropp ...

Maneuvering area

A maneuvering area or manoeuvring area is that part of an aerodrome to be used by aircraft for takeoff, landing, and taxiing, excluding aprons and areas designed for maintenance of an aircraft.

Maximum landing weight

The maximum landing weight is the maximum aircraft gross weight due to design or operational limitations at which an aircraft is permitted to land. The operation landing weight may be limited to a weight lower than the maximum landing weight by t ...

Mid-air retrieval

Mid-air retrieval is a technique used in atmospheric reentry when the reentering vehicle is incapable of a satisfactory unassisted landing. The vehicle is slowed by means of parachutes, and then a specially-equipped aircraft matches the vehicles ...

NOTAM

A notice to airmen is a notice filed with an aviation authority to alert aircraft pilots of potential hazards along a flight route or at a location that could affect the safety of the flight. NOTAMs are unclassified notices or advisories distribu ...

Overhead join

An overhead join is a conventional method for an aircraft to approach and safely land at an airfield. It helps a pilot to integrate with any air traffic pattern near an airfield, join any circuit, and land. Aircraft may arrive at the landing site ...

Pilot in command

The pilot in command of an aircraft is the person aboard the aircraft who is ultimately responsible for its operation and safety during flight. This would be the captain in a typical two- or three-pilot aircrew, or "pilot" if there is only one ce ...

Pilot's kneeboard

A kneeboard is an accessory with various types of clips or mounts to hold objects for pilots during flight. While their dimensions, material and specifics vary from model to model, a kneeboard, by definition, includes the following components: an ...

Powerback

Powerback is used by aircraft to move backwards on the ground using the power of their engines along with the aircrafts thrust reversal. In Europe only propeller aircraft tend to use powerbacks as a means of reversing, while in the United States ...

Run-up (aviation)

In aviation, run-up, or runup, is the series of last-minute checks performed by pilots on an aircraft prior to take-off. Run-ups are also sometimes performed by aircraft mechanics, either at a gate in between flights, to test engines and diagnose ...

Self-separation

Aircraft self-separation is the capability of an aircraft maintaining acceptably safe separation from other aircraft without following instructions or guidance from a referee agent for this purpose, such as air traffic control. In its simplest fo ...

Standard terminal arrival route

In aviation, a standard terminal arrival route or standard terminal arrival is a published flight procedure followed by aircraft on an instrument flight rules flight plan just before reaching a destination airport. A STAR is an air traffic contro ...

Taxiing

Taxiing is the movement of an aircraft on the ground, under its own power, in contrast to towing or push-back where the aircraft is moved by a tug. The aircraft usually moves on wheels, but the term also includes aircraft with skis or floats. An ...

Time based separation

The impact of strong headwinds on an aircraft’s speed during approach results in decreasing landing rates, generating delays and cancellations at airports with a significant cost to airspace users and the travelling public. In early 2000, EUROCON ...

Usable fuel

In aviation, usable fuel is the fuel on board an aircraft that can actually be used by its engines. The opposite of usable fuel is unusable fuel. The unusable fuel figure is calculated for an aircraft fuel tank in "the most adverse fuel feed cond ...

VFR over-the-top

VFR over-the-top refers to flying over top of clouds in visual flight, rather than with reference to instruments. This is usually done for brief amount of time to avoid weather or turbulence.

Visual flight (aeronautics)

Visual flight or "Visual Attitude Flying" is a method of controlling an aircraft where the aircraft attitude is determined by observing outside visual references. The remainder of this article is applicable to fixed-wing aircraft; much of it is a ...

Weathervane effect

Weathervaning or weathercocking is a phenomenon experienced by aircraft on the ground and rotorcraft on the ground and when hovering. Aircraft on the ground have a natural pivoting point on an axis through the main landing gear contact points. As ...

1923 in aviation

December 21 – The French dirigible Dixmude explodes over the Mediterranean Sea during a flight from Cuers-Pierrefeu, France, to French Algeria after being struck by lightning. Her entire crew of 52 perishes.