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Cert-money

Cert-money, or head-money, was a common fine, paid annually by the residents of several manors to the lords thereof; and sometimes to the hundred; pro certo letae, for the certain keeping of the leet. This in ancient records, was called certum letae.

Certificate of appealability

In the most common types of habeas corpus proceedings in the United States federal courts, a certificate of appealability is a legal document that must be issued before a petitioner may appeal from a denial of the writ. The certificate may only b ...

Child support in Israel

The laws governing child support in Israel can be tried under either civil courts or religious courts. Jewish, Muslim, Druze and Christian courts are officially recognised by the Israeli state as having jurisdiction over family matters, if a case ...

Children and Social Work Act 2017

The Children and Social Work Act 2017 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The Act was passed by the Conservative Government in 2017, having been launched in 2016 in the House of Lords by Parliamentary Undersecretary of State for th ...

Citizenship test

Life in the United Kingdom test American citizenship test Integration law for immigrants to the Netherlands Canadian Citizenship Test Immigration to Germany#Naturalization Citizenship Examination Australian citizenship test

City court

City court or municipal court is a court of law with jurisdiction limited to a city or other municipality. It typically addresses "violations of city ordinances and may also have jurisdiction over minor criminal cases.and over certain civil cases ...

Civil Defence Act 1948

The Civil Defence Act 1948 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom setting out legislation for civil defence procedures in the United Kingdom. It was repealed and replaced by the Civil Contingencies Act 2004.

Clinger–Cohen Act

The Clinger–Cohen Act of 1996 encompasses two laws that were together passed as part of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996: The Information Technology Management Reform Act of 1996 was Division E of the NDA The Federal Ac ...

Collateral warranty

The term" collateral warranty ” originates in property law. In 1839 Nick Grimsley wrote:" A collateral warranty is where the heir neither does nor could derive his title to the land from the warrantor; and yet is both de-barred from claiming titl ...

Collegatary

In civil law, a collegatary is a person to whom is left a legacy, as imparted by a will, in common with one or more other individuals; so called as being a joint legatary, or co-legatee.

Collymore v Attorney General

Collymore and other trade union members for oil companies claimed that a new Industrial Stabilisation Act 1965 in Trinidad and Tobago was ultra vires the constitution, which guaranteed freedom of association. The Act required no strikes pending b ...

Committee of adjustment

A Committee of Adjustment, similar to a Zoning Board of Adjustment, is a quasi-judicial body in each Ontario municipality that adjudicates matters related to minor variances to Zoning by-laws and consents to severances of land.

Community Legal Advice

Community Legal Advice is a government-funded advice service set up by the Legal Services Commission as part of the Community Legal Service. It aims to help people in England and Wales deal with civil legal problems, and is part of the legal aid ...

Company registration in Ghana

Ghana has several business registration systems. Company registration is done by the Registrar Generals Department, but this duty will be transferred to the new Office of the Registrar of Companies under the terms of the Companies Act, 2018. Both ...

Competing harms

Competing harms is a legal doctrine in certain U.S. states, particularly in New England. For example, the Maine Criminal Code holds that "Conduct that the person believes to be necessary to avoid imminent physical harm to that person or another i ...

Compulsory prosecution

Compulsory prosecution is an aspect of certain justice systems in which the prosecutor is required to press charges when he has sufficient evidence to support a conviction. This system is used in Germany. It has also been required by the Constitu ...

Concluding observations on the second periodic report of the Holy See

Concluding observations on the second periodic report of the Holy See was a 2014 report issued by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, regarding the handling by the Catholic Church and Holy See of cases of sexual a ...

Concurrent intent

Concurrent intent is when there is a specific intent to commit one crime, and at the same time an intent to commit another. An example is when a perpetrator plants a bomb or shoots an automatic weapon in a crowded place, with an intent to kill a ...

Conservator of the peace

In ancient British customs, Conservators of the Peace, or Wardens of the Peace, were individuals who had a special charge, by virtue of their office, to see that the Kings peace was kept.

Constance Slaughter-Harvey

Slaughter-Harvey studied at Hawkins High School where she graduated valedictorian in 1963. She received her bachelors degree in political science and economics from Tougaloo College with cum laude honors. She met civil rights activist Medgar Ever ...

Constant visual observation

Constant visual observation, often abbreviated to "constant visual", is a term used in various Mental Health Services, Prisons and Special Schools to describe the status of a prisoner or patient who poses a threat to himself or a third party, and ...

Constitution of Jamaica

As a constituent province of the West Indies Federation, Jamaica became independent of the United Kingdom on 6 August 1962 under the Jamaica Independence Act 1962. Under the West Indies Act 1962, the monarchy of the United Kingdom was allowed to ...

Constitution of the Cayman Islands

The current Constitution of the Cayman Islands, the fourth written constitution for the Cayman Islands since 1959, was established by "The Cayman Islands Constitution Order 2009" of 10 June, 2009, and came into force on 4 November, 2009, by a pro ...

Consumer Court

Consumer Court is a special purpose court in India that deals with cases regarding consumer disputes, conflicts and grievances. They are judiciary hearings set up by the government to protect the consumers rights. Its main function is to maintain ...

Contra proferentem

Contra proferentem, also known as "interpretation against the draftsman", is a doctrine of contractual interpretation providing that, where a promise, agreement or term is ambiguous, the preferred meaning should be the one that works against the ...

Contractual Remedies Act 1979

The Contractual Remedies Act 1979 is a statute of the New Zealand Parliament. It provides remedies in respect of misrepresentation, repudiation or breach of contract in New Zealand

Contractualism

Contractualism is a term in philosophy which refers either to a family of political theories in the social contract tradition, or to the ethical theory developed in recent years by T. M. Scanlon, especially in his book What Owe to Each Other. Soc ...

Conveyancer

In most Commonwealth countries, a conveyancer is a specialist lawyer who specialises in the legal aspects of buying and selling real property, or conveyancing. A conveyancer can also be a solicitor, licensed conveyancer, or a fellow of the Instit ...

Cooling-off period (consumer rights)

In consumer rights legislation and practice, a cooling-off period is a period of time following a purchase when the purchaser may choose to cancel a purchase, and return goods which have been supplied, for any reason, and obtain a full refund.

Copyright abolition

The term copyright abolition movements refers to movements to abolish copyright, specifically those that espouse the repeal of the Statute of Anne and all subsequent law made in its support. Michele Boldrin and David K. Levine, economists at Wash ...

Copyright law of North Korea

Copyright law of North Korea is regulated by the Copyright Act of 2001. It introduced a 50 years pma protection, and has been amended several times. North Korea had no copyright law before that date. North Korea has been party to the Berne Conven ...

Copyright law of Sweden

Swedish copyright law is regulated by the act from 1960. Like in most other countries, it grants the author or relevant copyright holders exclusive rights to the work for 70 years following the author’s death. History of copyright in Sweden dates ...

Corporation counsel

The corporation counsel is the title given to the chief legal officer who handles civil claims against the city in some US municipal and county jurisdictions, including negotiating settlements and defending the city when it is sued. Most corporat ...

Countersign (legal)

Countersigning means writing a second signature onto a document. For example, a contract or other official document signed by the representative of a company may be countersigned by his supervisor to verify the authority of the representative. Al ...

Court usher

A court usher is a position in a law court. Tasks generally performed by court ushers involve escorting participants to the courtroom, and seeing that they are suitably hydrated, as well as ensuring the secure transaction of legal documents withi ...

Credit card kiting

Credit card kiting refers to the use of one or more credit cards to obtain cash and purchasing power they do not have, or pay credit card balances with the proceeds of other cards. Unlike check kiting, which is illegal under nearly all circumstan ...

Credit Support Annex

A Credit Support Annex, or CSA, is a legal document which regulates credit support for derivative transactions. It is one of the four parts that make up an ISDA Master Agreement but is not mandatory. It is possible to have an ISDA agreement witho ...

Criminal Justice Act 1953

The Criminal Justice Act 1953 is a Malaysian law which enacted relating to penal servitude, methods of imprisonment and whipping; and for purposes connected therewith. Section 3 provides that a sentence of imprisonment for life is deemed as 30 ye ...

Crown Prosecutor

Crown prosecutor is the title given in a number of jurisdictions to the state prosecutor, the legal party responsible for presenting the case against an individual in a criminal trial. The title is commonly used in Commonwealth realms.

Crumbling skull rule

The crumbling skull rule is a well-established legal doctrine used in some tort law systems. It holds that where a plaintiff had a condition or injury that predates the tort and would have naturally deteriorated or worsened over time, the defenda ...

Cryptography law

Cryptography is the practice and study of encrypting information, or in other words, securing information from unauthorized access. There are many different cryptography laws in different nations. Some countries prohibit export of cryptography so ...

Cultural property

Cultural property are physical items that are part of the cultural heritage of a group or society. They include such items as historic buildings, works of art, archaeological sites, libraries and museums.

Cure or quit

In landlord–tenant law, a notice to cure or quit is issued by a landlord when a tenant performs actions in violation of a lease. The notice gives a tenant the option of either fixing the offending problem or vacating the rental property. If the t ...

De facto corporation and corporation by estoppel

De facto corporation and corporation by estoppel are both terms that are used by courts in most common law jurisdictions to describe circumstances in which a business organization that has failed to become a de jure corporation will nonetheless b ...

De jure

In law and government, de jure describes practices that are legally recognised, regardless whether the practice exists in reality. In contrast, de facto describes situations that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised. The terms are oft ...

De sententia ferenda

De sententia ferenda, Latin for "of judgments as they should be," is a legal term used to depict advice to the courts about how they should judge and refine the analysis about what they really decide. The concept is similar but not the same as, l ...

Decemviri stlitibus judicandis

The decemviri stlitibus judicandis was a civil court of ancient origin, traditionally attributed to Servius Tullius, which originally dealt with cases concerning whether an individual was free.

Deed of gift

A deed of gift is a signed legal document that voluntarily and without recompense transfers ownership of real, personal, or intellectual property – such as a gift of materials – from one person or institution to another. It should include any pos ...

Deem (law)

Deem in law is used to treat something as if it were really something else or it has qualities it does not have. Deem has been traditionally considered to be a useful word when it is necessary to establish a legal fiction either positively by "de ...

Defensive Patent License

The Defensive Patent License is a patent license proposed by Jason Schultz and Jennifer Urban, directors of the Samuelson Law, Technology & Public Policy Clinic at the University of California, Berkeley as a patent licensing equivalent of the GPL ...