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Superfecundation

Superfecundation is the fertilization of two or more ova from the same cycle by sperm from separate acts of sexual intercourse, which can lead to twin babies from two separate biological fathers. The term superfecundation is derived from fecund, ...

Teleomorph, anamorph and holomorph

In mycology, the terms teleomorph, anamorph, and holomorph apply to portions of the life cycles of fungi in the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota: Anamorph: an asexual reproductive stage morph, often mold-like. When a single fungus produces mult ...

Telescoping generations

Telescoping generations can occur in parthenogenetic species, such as aphids or other life forms that have the ability to reproduce without ovum fertilization. This occurrence is characterized by a viviparous female having a daughter growing insi ...

Telium

Telium, plural telia, are structures produced by rust fungi as part of the reproductive cycle. They are typically yellow or orange drying to brown or black and are exclusively a mechanism for the release of teliospores which are released by wind ...

Tetraspore

Tetraspores are red algae spores produced by the tetrasporophytic phase in the life history of algae in the Rhodophyta as a result of meiosis. The name is derived from the 4 spores that form after this meiosis, the division is of three kinds: cru ...

Transmasculine reproduction

Transmasculine reproduction is when an individual with a masculine gender identity, who was born with biologically female reproductive organs, conceives and births a child. Transmasculine individuals were assigned female at birth, but identify mo ...

Voltinism

Voltinism is a term used in biology to indicate the number of broods or generations of an organism in a year. The term is most often applied to insects, and is particularly in use in sericulture, where silkworm varieties vary in their voltinism. ...

Worker policing

Worker policing is a behavior seen in colonies of social hymenopterans whereby worker females eat or remove eggs that have been laid by other workers rather than those laid by a queen. Worker policing ensures that the offspring of the queen will ...

Life science

The life sciences or biological sciences comprise the branches of science that involve the scientific study of life and organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, and animals including human beings. Life science is one of the two major branches ...

Biomedical research in the United States

Life sciences accounted for 51% of federal research expenditure in 2011. The National Institutes of Health NIH are considered the governments flagship biomedical research funding organization. Between 2004 and 2014, NIH funding remained relativel ...

ChemAxon

ChemAxon is a cheminformatics and bioinformatics software development company specializing in cloud based, end user solutions, back end platforms and consultancy services for chemical and biological research. Headquartered in Budapest, Hungary wi ...

Euroleague for Life Sciences

The Euroleague for Life Sciences, established in 2001, is a network of leading universities cooperating in the fields of natural resource management, agricultural and forestry sciences, life sciences, veterinary sciences, food sciences, and envir ...

Life Sciences (journal)

Life Sciences is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on the molecular, cellular, and physiological mechanisms of pharmacotherapy. Indexed by ISI Life Sciences received an impact factor of 2.702 as reported in the 2014 Jour ...

The e!DAL Plant Phenomics and Genomics Research Data Repository

The Plant Genomics and Phenomics Research Data Repository is a data publication infrastructure to comprehensively publish multi-domain plant research data. It is hosted at the Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research in Gatersl ...

Open Tree of Life

The Open Tree of Life is an online phylogenetic tree of life – a collaborative effort, funded by the National Science Foundation. The first draft, including 2.3 million species, was released in September 2015. The Interactive graph allows the use ...

Phylogenetic tree

A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities - their phylogeny - based upon similarities and differences in their physical or g ...

Tree of life (biology)

The tree of life or universal tree of life is a metaphor, model and research tool used to explore the evolution of life and describe the relationships between organisms, both living and extinct, as described in a famous passage in Charles Darwins ...

Coral of life

The Coral of Life is a metaphor or a mathematical model useful to illustrate evolution of life or phylogeny at various levels of resolution, including individual organisms, populations, species and large taxonomic groups. Its use in biology resol ...

Evolution of seed size

The first seeded plants emerged in the late Devonian 370 million years ago. Selection pressures shaping seed size stem from physical and biological sources including drought, predation, seedling-seedling competition, optimal dormancy depth, and d ...

Earliest known life forms

The earliest known life forms on Earth are putative fossilized microorganisms found in hydrothermal vent precipitates. The earliest time that life forms first appeared on Earth is at least 3.77 billion years ago, possibly as early as 4.28 billion ...

Outline of life forms

Life form – entity that is living, such as plants and animals. It is estimated that more than 99% of all species that ever existed on Earth, amounting to over five billion species, are extinct.

Cartesian theater

Cartesian theater is a derisive term coined by philosopher and cognitive scientist Daniel Dennett to refer pointedly to a defining aspect of what he calls Cartesian materialism, which he considers to be the often unacknowledged remnants of Cartes ...

Cognitive module

A cognitive module is a specialized tool or sub-unit that can be used by other parts to resolve cognitive tasks. It is used in theories of the modularity of mind and the closely related society of mind theory and was developed by Jerry Fodor. It ...

Memetics

Memetics is the study of information and culture based on an analogy with Darwinian evolution. Proponents describe memetics as an approach to evolutionary models of cultural information transfer. Memetics describes how an idea can propagate succe ...

Mental substance

Mental substance is the idea held by dualists and idealists, that minds are made-up of non-physical substance. This substance is often referred to as consciousness. This is opposed to the materialists, who hold that what we normally think of as m ...

Propositional attitude

A propositional attitude is a mental state held by an agent toward a proposition. Linguistically, propositional attitudes are denoted by a verb e.g. "believed" governing an embedded "that" clause, for example, Sally believed that she had won. Pro ...

Propositional representation

Propositional representation is the psychological theory, first developed in 1973 by Dr. Zenon Pylyshyn, that mental relationships between objects are represented by symbols and not by mental images of the scene.

Tabula rasa

Tabula rasa is the theory that individuals are born without built-in mental content and that therefore all knowledge comes from experience or perception. Epistemological proponents of tabula rasa disagree with the doctrine of innatism which holds ...

Adaptive memory

Adaptive memory is the study of memory systems that have evolved to help retain survival- and fitness-related information, i.e., that are geared toward helping an organism enhance its reproductive fitness and chances of surviving. One key element ...

Ambidexterity

Ambidexterity is the ability to use both the right and left hand equally well. When referring to objects, the concept indicates that the object is equally suitable for right-handed and left-handed people. When referring to humans, it indicates th ...

Attention

Attention is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether considered subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information. It is a state of arousal. As William Jam ...

Conceptual blending

In psychology, Conceptual blending, also called conceptual integration or view application, is a theory of cognition developed by Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Turner. According to this theory, elements and vital relations from diverse scenarios are ...

Consciousness

Consciousness at its simplest is "sentience or awareness of internal or external existence". Despite centuries of analyses, definitions, explanations and debates by philosophers and scientists, consciousness remains puzzling and controversial, be ...

Models of consciousness

Models of consciousness are used to illustrate and aid in understanding and explaining distinctive aspects of consciousness. Sometimes the models are labeled theories of consciousness. Anil Seth defines such models as those that relate brain phen ...

Somnolence

Somnolence is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods. It has distinct meanings and causes. It can refer to the usual state preceding falling asleep, the condition of being in a drowsy state due to circadian rhy ...

Unconscious mind

The unconscious mind consists of the processes in the mind which occur automatically and are not available to introspection and include thought processes, memories, interests and motivations. Even though these processes exist well under the surfa ...

Activation-synthesis hypothesis

The activation-synthesis hypothesis, proposed by Harvard University psychiatrists John Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley, is a neurobiological theory of dreams first published in the American Journal of Psychiatry in December 1977. The differences ...

Altered level of consciousness

An altered level of consciousness is any measure of arousal other than normal. Level of consciousness is a measurement of a persons arousability and responsiveness to stimuli from the environment. A mildly depressed level of consciousness or aler ...

Animal consciousness

Animal consciousness, like human consciousness, is a state: a felt state -- a state that it feels like something to be in. It includes the quality or state of self-awareness within an animal: being aware of an external object or of something with ...

Anti-nesting principle

In the philosophy of consciousness, the anti-nesting principle states that one state of consciousness cannot exist within another. Proponents of the anti-nesting principle include Giulio Tononi and Hilary Putnam.

APZ questionnaire

The APZ questionnaire is one of the most widely used psychometric scales for assessing subjective experiences of altered states of consciousness. First published in 1998 by Adolf Dittrich, the APZ questionnaire comprises three dimensions: "Oceani ...

Artificial consciousness

Artificial consciousness, also known as machine consciousness or synthetic consciousness, is a field related to artificial intelligence and cognitive robotics. The aim of the theory of artificial consciousness is to "Define that which would have ...

Aura (paranormal)

An aura or human energy field is, according to New Age beliefs, a colored emanation said to enclose a human body or any animal or object. In some esoteric positions, the aura is described as a subtle body. Psychics and holistic medicine practitio ...

Awareness

Awareness is the ability to directly know and perceive, to feel, or to be cognizant of events. More broadly, it is the state of being conscious of something. Another definition describes it as a state wherein a subject is aware of some informatio ...

Chaitanya (consciousness)

The Sanskrit word, Chaitanya, means consciousness or spirit or intelligence or sensation. It is the pure Consciousness or the cosmic intelligence, the consciousness that knows itself and also knows others. It also means energy or enthusiasm. In t ...

Choiceless awareness

Choiceless awareness is posited in philosophy, psychology, and spirituality to be the state of unpremeditated, complete awareness of the present without preference, effort, or compulsion. The term was popularized in the mid-20th century by Jiddu ...

Class consciousness

In political theory and particularly Marxism, class consciousness is the set of beliefs that a person holds regarding their social class or economic rank in society, the structure of their class, and their class interests. According to Karl Marx, ...

Communalness

Communalness, as suggested by Robert A. Freitas Jr., is a level of an emergent phenomenon which originates from electronic sentience, and represents a broader mode of thinking than just normal consciousness. While consciousness is limited to the ...

Consciousness Industry

The Consciousness Industry is a term coined by author and theorist Hans Magnus Enzensberger, which identifies the mechanisms through which the human mind is reproduced as a social product. Foremost among these mechanisms are the institutions of m ...

Disorders of consciousness

Disorders of consciousness are medical conditions that inhibit consciousness. Some define disorders of consciousness as any change from complete self-awareness to inhibited or absent self-awareness and arousal. This category generally includes mi ...