ⓘ Academic disciplines

Discipline (academia)

An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge that is taught and researched at the college or university level. Disciplines are defined, and recognized by the academic journals in which research is published, and the learned societies and academic departments or faculties within colleges and universities to which their practitioners belong. It includes language, art and cultural studies and other scientific disciplines. It incorporates expertise, people, projects, communities, challenges, studies, inquiry, research areas, and facilities that are strongly associated ...

List of academic fields

An academic discipline or field of study is known as a branch of knowledge. It is taught as an accredited part of higher education. A scholars discipline is commonly defined and recognized by a university faculty. That person will be accredited by learned societies to which he or she belongs along with the academic journals in which he or she publishes. However, no formal criteria exist for defining an academic discipline. Disciplines vary between universities and even programs. These will have well-defined rosters of journals and conferences supported by a few universities and publication ...

Outline of academic disciplines

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to academic disciplines: An academic discipline or field of study is a branch of knowledge, taught and researched as part of higher education. A scholars discipline is commonly defined by the university faculties and learned societies to which they belong and the academic journals in which they publish research. Disciplines vary between well-established ones that exist in almost all universities and have well-defined rosters of journals and conferences, and nascent ones supported by only a few universities and publicatio ...

Architectural analytics

Architectural analytics is the field of study that focuses on the discovery and identification of meaningful patterns in architecture. Architecture represents a snapshot in time and can, in a very detailed fashion, animate the civilisation and people that created it. Architectural analytics can allow a large amount of information about a monument, settlement or civilisation to be discerned. This ability to inform and present previously unknown facts makes architectural analytics important in piecing together the larger understanding of civilisations and the human story.

Arts administration

Arts administration is the field that concerns business operations around an arts organization. Arts administrators are responsible for facilitating the day-to-day operations of the organization and fulfilling its mission. Arts management became present in the arts and culture sector in the 1960s. Arts organizations include professional non-profit entities and many smaller professional and non-professional for-profit arts-related organizations. The duties of an arts administrator can include staff management, marketing, budget management, public relations, fundraising, program development ...

Business informatics

Business informatics is a discipline combining economics, economics of digitization, business administration, information technology, and concepts of computer science. The BI discipline was created in Germany. It is an established academic discipline including bachelor, master, diploma and PhD programs in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, The Netherlands, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and is establishing in an increasing number of other countries as well as Australia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Malaysia, Poland and Mexico.

Clinical physiology

Clinical physiology is both an academic discipline within the medical sciences and a clinical medical specialty for physicians in the health care systems of Sweden, Denmark and Finland. Clinical Physiology can also be more broadly defined as the application of the knowledge of human physiology to patients in a health care setting. As a specialty for medical doctors, Clinical Physiology is a diagnostic specialty to which patients are referred to undergo specialized tests of functions of the heart, blood vessels, lungs, kidneys and gastrointestinal tract, and other organs. Testing methods in ...

Communication studies

Communication studies or communication sciences is an academic discipline that deals with processes of human communication and behavior, patterns of communication in interpersonal relationships, social interactions and communication in different cultures. Communication is commonly defined as giving, receiving or exchanging ideas, information, signals or messages through appropriate media, enabling individuals or groups to persuade, to seek information, to give information or to express emotions effectively. Communication studies is a social science that uses various methods of empirical in ...

Comparative law

Comparative law is the study of differences and similarities between the law of different countries. More specifically, it involves the study of the different legal "systems" in existence in the world, including the common law, the civil law, socialist law, Canon law, Jewish Law, Islamic law, Hindu law, and Chinese law. It includes the description and analysis of foreign legal systems, even where no explicit comparison is undertaken. The importance of comparative law has increased enormously in the present age of internationalism, economic globalization, and democratization.

Critical terrorism studies

Critical terrorism studies applies a critical theory approach rooted in counter-hegemonic and politically progressive critical theory to the study of terrorism. With links to the Frankfurt School of critical theory and the Aberystwyth School of critical security studies, CTS seeks to understand terrorism as a social construction, or a label, that is applied to certain violent acts through a range of political, legal and academic processes. It also seeks to understand and critique dominant forms of counter-terrorism.

Curriculum studies

Curriculum studies is a concentration within curriculum and instruction concerned with understanding curricula as an active force of human educational experience.

Design studies

Design Studies is an academic discipline that pursues a critical understanding of design and its effects through analytical and practical modes of inquiry. Its origins can be traced to design history where the field first got its start before slowly expanding to include larger themes and more varied subject matters. In that light, Victor Margolin, one of the founders of the discipline in the US, proposes Design Studies as a term that comprises various design researches and relates them to one another. As a highly interdisciplinary field, Design Studies references many scholarship paradigms ...

Economic history

Economic history is the academic study of economies or economic events of the past. Research is conducted using a combination of historical methods, statistical methods and the application of economic theory to historical situations and institutions. The field can encompass a wide variety of topics, including equality, finance, technology, labor, and business. It emphasizes historicizing the economy itself, analyzing it as a dynamic force and attempting to provide insights into the way it is structured and conceived. Often economic history overlaps with global history in its emphasis on cr ...

English studies

English studies is an academic discipline taught in primary, secondary, and post-secondary education in English-speaking countries; it is not to be confused with English taught as a foreign language, which is a distinct discipline. It involves the study and exploration of texts created in English literature. English includes: the study of literature written in the English language, the majority of which comes from Britain, the United States, and Ireland ; English composition, including writing essays, short stories, and poetry; English language arts, including the study of grammar, usage, ...

Environmental science

Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems. Environmental science emerged from the fields of natural history and medicine during the Enlightenment. Today it provides an integrated, quantitative, and interdisciplinary approach to the study of environmental systems. Environmental studies incorporates more of the social sciences for understanding human relationships, perceptions and policies towards the environment. Environmental engineeri ...

Environmental studies

Environmental studies is a multidisciplinary academic field which systematically studies human interaction with the environment. Environmental studies connects principles from the physical sciences, commerce/economics, and social sciences to address complex contemporary environmental issues. It is a broad field of study that includes the natural environment, the built environment, and the relationship between them. The field encompasses study in basic principles of ecology and environmental science, as well as associated subjects such as ethics, geography, anthropology, policy, politics, u ...

History of art criticism

The history of art criticism, as part of art history, is the study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts, i.e. genre, design, format, and style, which include aesthetic considerations. This includes the "major" arts of painting, sculpture, and architecture as well as the "minor" arts of ceramics, furniture, and other decorative objects. As a term, the history of art history also history of art encompasses several methods of studying and assessing the visual arts; in common usage referring to works of art and architecture. Aspects of the discipline overlap ...

Human services

Human services is an interdisciplinary field of study with the objective of meeting human needs through an applied knowledge base, focusing on prevention as well as remediation of problems, and maintaining a commitment to improving the overall quality of life of service populations. The process involves the study of social technologies, service technologies, and scientific innovations that are designed to ameliorate problems and enhance the quality of life of individuals, families and communities to improve the delivery of service with better coordination, accessibility and accountability. ...

Industrial arts

Industrial arts is an educational program which features fabrication of objects in wood or metal using a variety of hand, power, or machine tools. Industrial Arts is commonly referred to as Technology Education. It may include small engine repair and automobile maintenance, and all programs usually cover technical drawing as part of the curricula. As an educational term, industrial arts dates from 1904 when Charles R. Richards of Teachers College, Columbia University, New York suggested it to replace manual training. In the United States, industrial arts classes are colloquially known as s ...

Integrated modification methodology

Integrated modification methodology is a procedure encompassing an open set of scientific techniques for morphologically analyzing the built environment in a multiscale manner and evaluating its performance in actual states or under specific design scenarios. The methodology is structured around a nonlinear phasing process aiming for delivering a systemic understanding of any given urban settlement, formulating the modification set-ups for improving its performance, and examining the modification strategies to transform that system. The basic assumption in IMM is the recognition of the bui ...

Jurisprudence

Jurisprudence or legal theory is the theoretical study of law. Scholars of jurisprudence seek to explain the nature of law in its most general form and provide a deeper understanding of legal reasoning, legal systems, legal institutions, and the role of law in society. Modern jurisprudence began in the 18th century and was focused on the first principles of natural law, civil law, and the law of nations. General jurisprudence can be divided into categories both by the type of question scholars seek to answer and by the theories of jurisprudence, or schools of thought, regarding how those q ...

Legal history

Legal history or the history of law is the study of how law has evolved and why it changed. Legal history is closely connected to the development of civilisations and is set in the wider context of social history. Among certain jurists and historians of legal process, it has been seen as the recording of the evolution of laws and the technical explanation of how these laws have evolved with the view of better understanding the origins of various legal concepts; some consider it a branch of intellectual history. Twentieth century historians have viewed legal history in a more contextualised ...

List of fields of doctoral studies in the United States

This is the list of the fields of doctoral studies in the United States used for the annual Survey of Earned Doctorates, conducted by NORC at the University of Chicago for the National Science Foundation and other federal agencies, as used for the 2015 survey. These are fields of research-oriented doctoral studies, leading mostly to PhDs – in the academic year 2014–15, 98% of the 55.006 research doctorates awarded in the U.S. were PhDs; 1.1% were EdDs; 0.9% were other research doctorates. Professional degrees, though they are also considered doctorates earned, not honorary, and do entitle ...

Liturgics

Liturgics is the academic discipline dedicated to the study of liturgy. Liturgics scholars typically specialize in a single approach drawn from another scholarly field. The most common sub-disciplines are: history or church history, theology, and anthropology. Although liturgics scholars using these approaches apply the principles of their respective disciplines to their research, all liturgics scholars focus their work in the ritual behaviors of the members of faith communities.

Māori science

Māori science also called Te Pūtaiao Māori, is an academic discipline at the intersection of Western science and mātauranga Māori. It can be viewed as a decolonization of science. Māori science is practiced by the Māori people; the natives of New Zealand. As a result of separation from the other nations, the Māori developed their own culture and practices. Largely a product of Māori Renaissance of the later 20th and early 21st centuries, most Māori science is project-based with science-based organisation partner with iwi organisations and typically government funding. Outputs typically inc ...

Medical entomology

The discipline of medical entomology, or public health entomology, and also veterinary entomology is focused upon insects and arthropods that impact human health. Veterinary entomology is included in this category, because many animal diseases can "jump species" and become a human health threat, for example, bovine encephalitis. Medical entomology also includes scientific research on the behavior, ecology, and epidemiology of arthropod disease vectors, and involves a tremendous outreach to the public, including local and state officials and other stake holders in the interest of public saf ...

Philology

Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is the intersection of textual criticism, literary criticism, history, and linguistics. Philology is more commonly defined as the study of literary texts as well as oral and written records, the establishment of their authenticity and their original form, and the determination of their meaning. A person who pursues this kind of study is known as a philologist. In older usage, especially British, philology is more general, covering comparative and historical linguistics. Classical philology studies classical langu ...

Politics in education

As an academic discipline the study of politics in education has two main roots: The first root is based on theories from political science while the second root is footed in organizational theory. Political science attempts to explain how societies and social organizations use power to establish regulations and allocate resources. Organizational theory uses scientific theories of management to develop deeper understandings regarding the function of organizations. Researchers have drawn a distinction between two types of politics in schools. The term micro-politics refers to the use of for ...

Postgraduate research

Postgraduate research represents a formal area of study that is recognized by a university or institute of higher learning. By definition, the notion of" postgraduate” carries the implication that the candidate undertaking such research has already completed a formal Masters degree and at some instances the PhD, at an accredited university or tertiary institution. The resulting qualifications arising from postgraduate research leads to Post.

Praxeology

Praxeology or praxiology, meaning deed, action, and -λογία, meaning study of) is the study of human action, based on the notion that humans engage in purposeful behavior, as opposed to reflexive behavior like sneezing and unintentional behavior. French social philosopher Alfred Espinas gave the term its modern meaning, and its study was developed independently by two principal groups: the Austrian school, in which a praxeological approach was developed by Ludwig von Mises, and the Polish school created by Tadeusz Kotarbinski.

Public interest design

Public interest design is a human-centered and participatory design practice that places emphasis on the" triple bottom line” of sustainable design that includes ecological, economic, and social issues and on designing products, structures, and systems that address issues such as economic development and the preservation of the environment. Starting in the late 1990s, several books, convenings, and exhibitions have generated new momentum and investment in public interest design. Since then, public interest design - frequently described as a movement or field - has gained public recognition.

Social savings

Social savings is a growth in accounting techniques in order to evaluate the historical implications of new technology on economic growth. Developed in 1950 by American economic historian and scientist Robert Fogel, explains the methodology works to estimate the cost-savings of the new technology compared with the next best alternative. The first oral presentation was at the 1960 Purdue Cliometrics meeting, and the first published version was in the Journal of economic history in 1962. A recent survey can be found in "economic and history: surveys in Cliometrics", edited by David Greasley ...

Social work

Social work is an academic discipline and profession that concerns itself with individuals, families, groups, and communities in an effort to enhance social functioning and overall well-being. Social functioning is the way in which people perform their social roles, and the structural institutions that are provided to sustain them. Social work applies social sciences, such as sociology, psychology, political science, public health, community development, law, and economics, to engage with client systems, conduct assessments, and develop interventions to solve social and personal problems; ...

Sustainability studies

Sustainability studies focuses on the interdisciplinary perspective of the sustainability concept. Programs include instruction in sustainable development, geography, environmental policies, ethics, ecology, landscape architecture, city and regional planning, economics, natural resources, sociology, and anthropology. Sustainability studies also focuses on the importance of climate change, poverty and development. Studies in Sustainability are now available in many different universities across America. The main goal of sustainability studies is for students to find ways to develop creative ...

Sustainable development

Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while simultaneously sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services based upon which the economy and society depend. The desired result is a state of society where living conditions and resources are used to continue to meet human needs without undermining the integrity and stability of the natural system. Sustainable development can be defined as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to m ...

Textual scholarship

Textual scholarship is an umbrella term for disciplines that deal with describing, transcribing, editing or annotating texts and physical documents.

Utopian studies

Utopian studies is an interdisciplinary field of study that researches utopianism in all its forms, including utopian politics, utopian literature and art, utopian theory, and intentional communities. The term utopia was created by Thomas More in a book with the same name in 1516.

Visual communication

Visual communication is the conveyance of ideas and information in forms that can be seen. Visual communication in part or whole relies on eyesight. Visual communication is a broad spectrum that includes signs, typography, drawing, graphic design, illustration, industrial design, advertising, animation, color, and electronic resources.

Construction history

The history of construction overlaps many other fields like structural engineering and relies on other branches of science like archaeology, history and architecture to investigate how the builders lived and recorded their accomplishments. Those fields allow us to analyse constructed buildings and other structures built since prehistory, the tools used and the different uses of building materials. History of building is evolving by different trends in time, marked by few key principles: durability of the materials used, the increasing of height and span, the degree of control exercised ove ...

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