ⓘ Humanities

Humanities

Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with divinity and referred to what is now called classics, the main area of secular study in universities at the time. Today, the humanities are more frequently contrasted with natural, and sometimes social sciences, as well as professional training. The humanities use methods that are primarily critical, or speculative, and have a significant historical element - as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of the natural sciences, yet, unlike the sciences, ...

Humanities Indicators

The Humanities Indicators is a project of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences that equips researchers and policymakers, universities, foundations, museums, libraries, humanities councils and other public institutions with statistical tools for answering basic questions about primary and secondary humanities education, undergraduate and graduate education in the humanities, the humanities workforce, levels and sources of program funding, public understanding and impact of the humanities, and other areas of concern in the humanities community. Data from the Humanities Indicators has be ...

Outline of the humanities

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the humanities: Humanities – academic disciplines that study the human condition, using methods that are primarily analytical, critical, or speculative, as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of the natural sciences.

Anthropology

Anthropology is the scientific study of humans, human behavior and societies in the past and present. Social anthropology studies patterns of behaviour and cultural anthropology studies cultural meaning, including norms and values. Linguistic anthropology studies how language influences social life. Biological or physical anthropology studies the biological development of humans. Archaeology, which studies human activity through investigation of physical evidence, is thought of as a branch of anthropology in the United States and Canada, while in Europe, it is viewed as a discipline in its ...

Area studies

Area studies are interdisciplinary fields of research and scholarship pertaining to particular geographical, national/federal, or cultural regions. The term exists primarily as a general description for what are, in the practice of scholarship, many heterogeneous fields of research, encompassing both the social sciences and the humanities. Typical area study programs involve international relations, strategic studies, history, political science, political economy, cultural studies, languages, geography, literature, and other related disciplines. In contrast to cultural studies, area studie ...

Art history

Art history is the study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts; that is genre, design, format, and style. The study includes painting, sculpture, architecture, ceramics, furniture, and other decorative objects. Art history is the history of different groups of people and their culture represented throughout their artwork. Art historians compare different time periods in art history. Such as a comparison to Medieval Art to Renaissance Art. This history of cultures is shown in their art work in different forms. Art can be shown by attire, architecture, reli ...

Caucasology

Caucasology, or Caucasiology refers to the historical and geopolitical studies of Caucasus region. The branch has more than 150 years history. In 1972, the Caucasiological Center was founded under the auspices of the Israel President Zalman Shazar.

Change and continuity

Change and continuity is a classic dichotomy within the fields of history, historical sociology, and the social sciences more broadly. The dichotomy is used to discuss and evaluate the extent to which a historical development or event represents a decisive historical change or whether a situation remains largely unchanged. The question of change and continuity is considered a classic discussion in the study of historical developments. A good example of this discussion is the question of how much the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 represents an important change in European history. In a simila ...

Chorography

Chorography is the art of describing or mapping a region or district, and by extension such a description or map. This term derives from the writings of the ancient geographer Pomponius Mela and Ptolemy, where it meant the geographical description of regions. However, its resonances of meaning have varied at different times. Richard Helgerson states that "chorography defines itself by opposition to chronicle. It is the genre devoted to place, and chronicle is the genre devoted to time". Darrell Rohl prefers a broad definition of "the representation of space or place".

Classics

Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity. It encompasses the study of the Greco-Roman world, particularly of its languages and literature but also of Greco-Roman philosophy, history, and archaeology. Traditionally in the West, the study of the Greek and Roman classics is considered one of the cornerstones of the humanities and a fundamental element of a rounded education. The study of classics has therefore traditionally been a cornerstone of a typical elite education. Study encompasses specifically a time-period of history from the mid-2nd millennium BC to the 6th ...

Disclosing New Worlds

Disclosing New Worlds: Entrepreneurship, Democratic Action, and the Cultivation of Solidarity is a book co-authored by Fernando Flores, Hubert Dreyfus and Charles Spinosa. It is a philosophical proposal intended to restore or energize democracy by social constructionism via an argument style of world disclosure but which philosophy is distinct from: Formalism - an emphasis on form over content or meaning in the arts, literature, or philosophy Essentialism - the view that, for any specific entity, there is a set of attributes which are necessary to its identity and function. Relativism - a ...

Gender equality

Gender equality, also known as sexual equality or equality of the sexes, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender. Gender equality is the goal, while gender neutrality and gender equity are practices and ways of thinking that help in achieving the goal. Gender parity, which is used to measure gender balance in a given situation, can aid in achieving gender equality but is not the goal in and ...

German studies

German studies is the field of humanities that researches, documents, and disseminates German language and literature in both its historic and present forms. Academic departments of German studies often include classes on German culture, German history, and German politics in addition to the language and literature component. Common German names for the field are Germanistik, Deutsche Philologie, and Deutsche Sprachwissenschaft und Literaturwissenschaft. In English the terms Germanistics or Germanics are sometimes used, but the subject is more often referred to as German studies, German la ...

Global intellectual history

Global intellectual history is the history of thought in the world across the span of human history, often understood from the invention of writing to the present. The discipline is part of the field of intellectual history, also known as history of ideas, and can also be termed global history of ideas. In recent years, historians such as C. A. Bayly have been calling for a global intellectual history to be written. They stress that to understand the history of ideas across time and space, it is necessary to study from a cosmopolitan or global point of view the connections and the parallel ...

Health humanities

Health humanities is an interdisciplinary field of study that draws on aspects of the arts and humanities in its approach to health care, health and well-being. It involves the application of the creative or fine arts and humanities disciplines to questions of human health and well-being. This applied capacity of the humanities is not itself a novel idea; however, the construct of the health humanities only began to emerge in the first decade of the 21st century. Historically, the roots informing the health humanities can be traced back to, and can now be considered to include, such multid ...

History by period

Ancient history refers to the time period in which scientists have found the earliest remains of human activity, approximately 60.000 BC. It ends with the fall of several significant empires, such as the Western Roman Empire in the Mediterranean, the Han Dynasty in China, and the Gupta Empire in India, collectively around 650 AD. The Bronze Age is the time period in which humans around the world began to use bronze as a major metal in tools. It is generally accepted as starting around 3600 BC and ending with the advent of iron in 1000 BC. The Iron Age is often called Antiquity or the Class ...

Hprints

hprints is an archive for electronic preprints of academic papers in the fields of arts and humanities. It can be accessed freely via the Internet since it is an open access repository aiming at making scholarly documents publicly available to the widest possible audience.

Humanities in the United States

Humanities in the United States refers to the study of humanities disciplines, such as literature, history, language, performing and visual arts or philosophy, in the United States of America. Many American colleges and universities seek to provide a broad "liberal arts education", in which all college students to study the humanities in addition to their specific area of study. Prominent proponents of liberal arts in the United States have included Mortimer J. Adler and E.D. Hirsch. A liberal arts focus is often coupled with curricular requirements; colleges including Saint Anselm College ...

Integrated human studies

Integrated human studies is an emerging educational field that equips people with knowledge and competencies across a range of disciplines to enable them to address the challenges facing human beings this century. It differs from other interdisciplinary educational initiatives in that its curriculum is purpose designed rather than simply an amalgamation of existing disciplines. Kyoto University in Japan has offered a formal course in Integrated Human Studies since 1992 when it reorganized its College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and renamed it the Faculty of Integrated Human Studies. This ...

Intellectual history

Intellectual history refers to the history of ideas and thinkers. This history cannot be considered without the knowledge of the humans who created, discussed, wrote about, and in other ways were concerned with ideas. Intellectual history as practiced by historians is parallel to the history of philosophy as done by philosophers, and is more akin to the history of ideas. Its central premise is that ideas do not develop in isolation from the people who developed and use them, and that one must study ideas not only as abstract propositions but also in terms of the culture, lives, and histori ...

Library science

Library science is an interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary field that applies the practices, perspectives, and tools of management, information technology, education, and other areas to libraries; the collection, organization, preservation, and dissemination of information resources; and the political economy of information. Martin Schrettinger, a Bavarian librarian, coined the discipline within his work Versuch eines vollstandigen Lehrbuchs der Bibliothek-Wissenschaft oder Anleitung zur vollkommenen Geschaftsfuhrung eines Bibliothekars. Rather than classifying information based on natur ...

Linguistic turn

The linguistic turn was a major development in Western philosophy during the early 20th century, the most important characteristic of which is the focusing of philosophy and the other humanities primarily on the relations between language, language users, and the world. Very different intellectual movements were associated with the "linguistic turn", although the term itself is commonly thought to have been popularised by Richard Rortys 1967 anthology The Linguistic Turn, in which he discusses the turn towards linguistic philosophy. According to Rorty, who later dissociated himself from li ...

List of people considered a founder in a Humanities field

Those known as the father, mother, or considered a founder in a Humanities field are those who have made important contributions to that field. In some fields several people are considered the founders, while in others the title of being the "father" is debatable. Some of the people who have humanity are given in REFERENCES.

Literary nonsense

Literary nonsense is a broad categorization of literature that balances elements that make sense with some that do not, with the effect of subverting language conventions or logical reasoning. Even though the most well-known form of literary nonsense is nonsense verse, the genre is present in many forms of literature. The effect of nonsense is often caused by an excess of meaning, rather than a lack of it. Its humor is derived from its nonsensical nature, rather than wit or the "joke" of a punchline.

Media studies

Media studies is a discipline and field of study that deals with the content, history, and effects of various media; in particular, the mass media. Media Studies may draw on traditions from both the social sciences and the humanities, but mostly from its core disciplines of mass communication, communication, communication sciences, and communication studies. Researchers may also develop and employ theories and methods from disciplines including cultural studies, rhetoric including digital rhetoric, philosophy, literary theory, psychology, political science, political economy, economics, so ...

Oral tradition

Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication wherein knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another. The transmission is through speech or song and may include folktales, ballads, chants, prose or verses. In this way, it is possible for a society to transmit oral history, oral literature, oral law and other knowledge across generations without a writing system, or in parallel to a writing system. Religions such as Buddhism, Hinduism, Catholicism, and Jainism, for example, have used an oral tradition ...

Public humanities

Public humanities is the work of engaging diverse publics in reflecting on heritage, traditions, and history, and the relevance of the humanities to the current conditions of civic and cultural life. Public humanities is often practiced within federal, state, nonprofit and community-based cultural organizations that engage people in conversations, facilitate and present lectures, exhibitions, performances and other programs for the general public on topics such as history, philosophy, popular culture and the arts. Workers within the public humanities endeavor to create physical and virtual ...

Romance studies

Romance studies is an academic discipline that covers the study of the languages, literatures, and cultures of areas that speak a Romance language. Romance studies departments usually include the study of Spanish, French, Italian, and Portuguese. Additional languages of study include Romanian and Catalan, on one hand, and culture, history, and politics on the other hand. Because most places in Latin America speak a Romance language, Latin America is also studied in Romance studies departments. As a result, non-Romance languages in use in Latin America, such as Quechua, are sometimes also t ...

Satire

In fiction and less frequently in non-fiction, satire is a genre of literature and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement. Although satire is usually meant to be humorous, its greater purpose is often constructive social criticism, using wit to draw attention to both particular and wider issues in society. A feature of satire is strong irony or sarcasm - "in satire, irony is militant" - but parody, burlesque, exaggeration, juxtapos ...

School of Letters

The School of Letters was a summer institute and degree-granting program at Indiana University, Bloomington. The School moved from Kenyon College in 1951 following the withdrawal of funding of the School of English by the Rockefeller Foundation. I.U. President Herman B. Wells obtained funding from the University and located the School under the administration of Dean John W. Ashton of the College of Arts and Sciences. The School opened under the direction of Prof. Richard B. Hudson and then transitioned to Prof. Newton P. Stalky Stallknecht until his retirement and the Schools dissolution ...

Somatic theory

Somatic theory is a theory of human social behavior based loosely on the somatic marker hypothesis of Antonio Damasio, which proposes a mechanism by which emotional processes can guide behavior, particularly decision-making, as well as the attachment theory of John Bowlby and the self psychology of Heinz Kohut, especially as consolidated by Allan Schore. It draws on various philosophical models from On the Genealogy of Morals of Friedrich Nietzsche through Martin Heidegger on das Man, Maurice Merleau-Ponty on the lived body, and Ludwig Wittgenstein on social practices to Michel Foucault on ...

Spatial turn

Spatial turn is an intellectual movement that places emphasis on place and space in social science and the humanities. It is closely linked with quantitative studies of history, literature, cartography, and other studies of society. The movement has been influential in providing mass amounts of data for study of cultures, regions, and specific locations.

Transparency (behavior)

Transparency, as used in science, engineering, business, the humanities and in other social contexts, is operating in such a way that it is easy for others to see what actions are performed. Transparency implies openness, communication, and accountability. Transparency is practiced in companies, organizations, administrations, and communities. For example, a cashier making change after a point of sale transaction by offering a record of the items purchased e.g., a receipt as well as counting out the customers change on the counter demonstrates one type of transparency. The term transparenc ...

Variantology

Variantology has been conceived as an international research project with the aim of developing a critical appraisal of the established concepts of" media”. The concept of a medium is thus opened up to approaches and disciplines that up to now have remained outside the contemporary discourse on media, such as theology, various musicology, aspects of natural sciences, fine arts or classical philology. Furthermore, it is opened up to cultures of knowledge that have long been excluded from the western discourse, like the oriental and Arabic-Islamic culture. Variantology also attempts to explo ...

Vorlage

A Vorlage is a prior version or manifestation of a text under consideration. It may refer to such a version of a text itself, a particular manuscript of the text, or a more complex manifestation of the text. Thus, the original-language version of a text which a translator then works into a translation is called the Vorlage of that translation. For example, the Luther Bible is a translation of the Textus Receptus, so the Textus Receptus is the Vorlage of the Luther Bible. Sometimes the Vorlage of a translation may be lost to history. In some of these cases the Vorlage may be reconstructed f ...

Women in musicology

Women in musicology describes the role of women professors, scholars and researchers in postsecondary education musicology departments at postsecondary education institutions, including universities, colleges and music conservatories. Traditionally, the vast majority of major musicologists and music historians have been men. Nevertheless, some women musicologists have reached the top ranks of the profession. Carolyn Abbate is an American musicologist who did her PhD at Princeton University. She has been described by the Harvard Gazette as "one of the worlds most accomplished and admired mu ...

The Word and the World

The Word and the World Project of the Stanford Universitys Learning Lab developed a large lecture, Introduction to Humanities course adopting pedagogical strategies and technologies designed to enhance learning. The course was given in 1997 and 1998. The goal of the curriculum innovations was to transform a large lecture course into a learning community. Professors: Larry Friedlander, Haun Saussy, and Tim Lenior ; teaching fellows: Carlos Seligo and Margo Denman and lab staff: Charles Kerns and George Toye worked together to develop a holistic curriculum mediated through a website center f ...

World community

The term world community is used primarily in political and humanitarian contexts to describe an international aggregate of nation states of widely varying types. In most connotations, the term is used to convey meanings attached to consensus or inclusion of all people in all lands and their governments.

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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

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